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Tier 1 & 2 Metro Areas’ Health Risk Index Scores

To better understand where and why COVID-19 has spread within the United States, Emsi has developed a Health Risk Index.

This index accounts for the four key risk factors that contribute to the spread of COVID-19 in some regions more than others:

  • Preconditioned population: The number of people who, within the past year, have been treated for diabetes, visited a cardiologist, taken asthma medications, or smoked.
  • Population density: The number of people per square mile in the region.
  • Workplace interaction: A measure of the overall workplace density of specific industries.
  • Population health: The age, income, and education level of the region’s population, which affect their overall health.

The following tables list the risk index scores for each of these four factors as well as the overall Health Risk Index score for all Tier 1 and Tier 2 metropolitan areas in the US.

 

Risk Indices for Tier 1 Metro Areas

Metropolitan AreaPopulation Health IndexWorkplace Interaction IndexPreconditions IndexPopulation Density IndexEMSI HEALTH RISK INDEX
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA10.9530.9190.9060.94
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA0.7960.8430.49310.78
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD0.4060.880.7250.6160.66
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI0.5770.7470.6740.6190.65
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH0.2470.9960.480.6340.59
Cleveland-Elyria, OH0.0980.7910.860.5110.57
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL0.2370.5010.9160.5840.56
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL0.4860.4570.6730.5560.54
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI0.3160.4080.9040.5370.54
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD0.1230.8120.6760.5270.53
Pittsburgh, PA0.1040.81510.2030.53
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX0.4810.7470.4720.4110.53
San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA0.2280.8590.2220.7940.53
St. Louis, MO-IL0.1480.7570.870.1440.48
Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX0.4650.6120.4150.4190.48
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA0.3780.6140.5340.3440.47
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL0.1490.8080.5160.3330.45
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV0.2960.7930.210.4940.45
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN0.0850.7240.7150.2580.45
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI0.13810.4270.2110.44
Columbus, OH0.0650.8820.6180.2050.44
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN0.0740.6960.7660.2290.44
San Diego-Carlsbad, CA0.1610.720.4350.40.43
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA0.0790.7790.6640.1550.42
Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC0.130.5830.6740.2450.41
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA0.1770.7190.3870.3410.41
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ0.3340.7570.3930.1370.41
Kansas City, MO-KS0.0630.7670.670.1030.40
Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin, TN0.0540.7320.6870.1130.40
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX0.1340.7670.520.1420.39
Sacramento-Roseville-Arden-Arcade, CA0.0790.6590.5480.2060.37
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO0.1070.840.3390.1460.36
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV0.1110.6650.5540.0910.36
Austin-Round Rock, TX0.0270.7430.2380.2590.32
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA00.800.3760.29
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA0.34600.2800.16

 

Risk Indices for Tier 2 Metro Areas

Metropolitan AreaPopulation Health IndexWorkplace Interaction IndexPreconditions IndexPopulation Density IndexEMSI HEALTH RISK INDEX
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI Metro0.9380.8450.6520.8070.81
Providence-Warwick, RI-MA Metro10.7360.7030.7710.80
New Haven-Milford, CT Metro0.6260.8130.7350.9350.78
Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY Metro0.8030.8110.8130.640.77
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Metro0.9870.7060.6650.5730.73
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT Metro0.7730.8210.6510.6780.73
Trenton, NJ Metro0.2440.960.6610.72
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX Metro0.7920.8860.5810.5410.70
Jacksonville, FL Metro0.9750.6470.6630.4720.69
New Orleans-Metairie, LA Metro0.9250.6830.8250.3170.69
Rochester, NY Metro0.7740.850.7670.3570.69
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN Metro0.8910.6550.8070.3880.69
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT Metro0.6030.7610.4060.9570.68
Springfield, MA Metro0.5280.9170.7390.5250.68
Dayton, OH Metro0.6580.6680.7830.5890.67
Akron, OH Metro0.5660.6960.7540.670.67
Memphis, TN-MS-AR Metro0.9480.6480.7330.3040.66
North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL Metro0.7390.4820.8170.5820.66
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL Metro0.7210.4420.6930.7390.65
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ Metro0.6530.690.6880.5520.65
Worcester, MA-CT Metro0.6610.8020.6520.4660.65
Oklahoma City, OK Metro0.8980.6870.7020.2890.64
Greensboro-High Point, NC Metro0.6820.6760.80.4110.64
Toledo, OH Metro0.5240.760.8120.4580.64
Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin, SC Metro0.7660.6180.80.3630.64
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY Metro0.6160.8290.7410.3450.63
Scranton-Wilkes-Barre-Hazleton, PA Metro0.5150.7020.9590.3510.63
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX Metro0.4730.9290.6530.4650.63
Birmingham-Hoover, AL Metro0.8650.5830.8090.2510.63
Richmond, VA Metro0.850.7410.5790.3190.62
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI Metro0.7040.7050.6570.4170.62
Raleigh, NC Metro0.7580.6970.3990.5980.61
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA Metro0.5290.6210.9480.3480.61
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metro0.4710.8440.7430.3810.61
Knoxville, TN Metro0.7310.6230.7960.2820.61
Winston-Salem, NC Metro0.6260.5830.8440.3660.60
Baton Rouge, LA Metro0.6550.6890.8370.230.60
Syracuse, NY Metro0.5330.7940.7760.3020.60
Lancaster, PA Metro0.4660.6790.7110.5410.60
Flint, MI Metro0.3880.5150.8750.5890.59
Asheville, NC Metro0.4380.6920.9720.2640.59
Tucson, AZ Metro0.8060.7330.6990.1260.59
Tulsa, OK Metro0.7440.6380.8030.1790.59
Durham-Chapel Hill, NC Metro0.4230.8650.7170.3570.59
Canton-Massillon, OH Metro0.3710.6490.8990.4340.59
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL Metro0.5550.4550.7910.5460.59
Chattanooga, TN-GA Metro0.5350.6080.8740.3020.58
Barnstable Town, MA Metro0.1260.7990.8660.5220.58
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ Metro0.2230.8440.7470.4810.57
Albuquerque, NM Metro0.7210.7990.6570.1060.57
Corpus Christi, TX Metro0.4380.7450.8050.2890.57
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metro0.5980.6880.7740.2070.57
Mobile, AL Metro0.4290.5510.9080.3650.56
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL Metro0.6540.3320.8510.4120.56
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA Metro0.6010.8030.5830.2520.56
El Paso, TX Metro0.7130.7720.5750.1770.56
Columbia, SC Metro0.6590.6770.6430.2560.56
Fresno, CA Metro0.7990.7730.4640.1910.56
Salisbury, MD-DE Metro0.4160.6110.9680.2250.56
Rockford, IL Metro0.3020.6330.8330.4450.55
Portland-South Portland, ME Metro0.3850.7850.7520.2830.55
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI Metro0.2840.7040.8450.3680.55
Salt Lake City, UT Metro0.6830.9060.4250.1790.55
Lexington-Fayette, KY Metro0.3940.7310.6830.3810.55
Reading, PA Metro0.380.6520.6640.4920.55
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA Metro0.4570.670.9070.1510.55
Charleston-North Charleston, SC Metro0.5950.6210.6280.3280.54
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC Metro0.5140.5220.8530.2820.54
Lansing-East Lansing, MI Metro0.3340.7780.7380.320.54
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL Metro0.4260.6250.7870.3310.54
Erie, PA Metro0.2120.780.7810.3760.54
Fort Wayne, IN Metro0.3580.6690.7550.360.54
Jackson, MS Metro0.5190.6970.7850.1380.53
Ann Arbor, MI Metro0.15210.4770.5080.53
York-Hanover, PA Metro0.390.5320.7080.4990.53
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metro0.5650.6250.470.4670.53
Savannah, GA Metro0.3190.6880.7990.3180.53
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metro0.5760.5360.8080.1990.53
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL Metro0.6920.2660.7680.3820.53
Springfield, MO Metro0.4140.730.7810.1810.53
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC Metro0.4330.4690.9390.2590.53
Wichita, KS Metro0.5070.720.7180.1460.52
Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA Metro0.420.8220.5670.2660.52
Stockton-Lodi, CA Metro0.6140.4790.4620.520.52
Lafayette, LA Metro0.4740.620.8230.1520.52
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH Metro0.370.60.9410.1570.52
Utica-Rome, NY Metro0.2530.80.8970.1170.52
Lubbock, TX Metro0.2310.7970.8270.2030.51
Tyler, TX Metro0.1730.790.8090.2810.51
Gainesville, FL Metro0.170.8830.7450.2540.51
Fayetteville, NC Metro0.3190.5860.7420.3940.51
Santa Rosa, CA Metro0.3630.6950.6250.3470.51
Roanoke, VA Metro0.2780.7010.8550.1940.51
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI Metro0.2280.6810.7960.3170.51
Norwich-New London, CT Metro0.1610.750.6930.4170.51
Madison, WI Metro0.3770.8670.5430.230.50
Port St. Lucie, FL Metro0.4960.3840.7180.4190.50
Evansville, IN-KY Metro0.2660.6410.8640.2430.50
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL Metro0.3170.6820.8180.1910.50
Spokane-Spokane Valley, WA Metro0.4530.7240.7210.1080.50
Spartanburg, SC Metro0.3570.5270.8180.2980.50
Waco, TX Metro0.2350.7610.8310.1720.50
Colorado Springs, CO Metro0.4830.7380.4420.3180.50
Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula, MS Metro0.3780.5110.8220.2550.49
Binghamton, NY Metro0.1850.7070.8380.2290.49
Columbus, GA-AL Metro0.280.6840.8060.180.49
Modesto, CA Metro0.4890.5440.5250.3910.49
Huntsville, AL Metro0.3840.5880.6010.370.49
Lincoln, NE Metro0.1680.8580.6420.2730.49
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX Metro0.3630.5350.8390.2030.49
Eugene, OR Metro0.320.6860.8510.0810.48
Springfield, IL Metro0.1030.8710.7590.2040.48
Peoria, IL Metro0.2870.6550.8260.1690.48
Green Bay, WI Metro0.2190.8290.6840.1990.48
Racine, WI Metro0.1120.5440.7170.5570.48
Wilmington, NC Metro0.2190.6530.7330.3150.48
Salem, OR Metro0.3620.6730.6210.2590.48
Montgomery, AL Metro0.3680.5530.8370.1550.48
Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA Metro0.3520.4320.9450.1750.48
Manchester-Nashua, NH Metro0.2770.6820.4630.4810.48
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO Metro0.440.620.6350.2030.47
Tallahassee, FL Metro0.2820.7440.6740.1820.47
Charleston, WV Metro0.2080.6450.8910.1370.47
Vallejo-Fairfield, CA Metro0.3190.5480.4980.5130.47
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA Metro0.1260.6670.5020.5740.47
Duluth, MN-WI Metro0.1910.8140.8600.47
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV Metro0.2280.580.6730.3760.46
Elkhart-Goshen, IN Metro0.1530.4880.7540.460.46
Longview, TX Metro0.1990.6420.8720.1390.46
Olympia-Tumwater, WA Metro0.1620.6510.6170.4210.46
Macon, GA Metro0.2320.620.8450.1530.46
Killeen-Temple, TX Metro0.3270.5710.7430.1890.46
College Station-Bryan, TX Metro0.1310.8590.6950.140.46
Boulder, CO Metro0.1240.8380.3990.4590.46
Fort Smith, AR-OK Metro0.3080.4640.9680.080.46
Medford, OR Metro0.1770.6790.8880.0750.45
Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island, FL Metro0.3730.4890.7350.2180.45
Lynchburg, VA Metro0.2370.60.8330.1410.45
Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA Metro0.3160.7470.5610.1850.45
Bremerton-Silverdale, WA Metro0.1440.3980.6410.6160.45
Reno, NV Metro0.3710.7080.6530.0610.45
Lake Charles, LA Metro0.1650.6840.8630.0730.45
Boise City, ID Metro0.5220.7110.4960.0530.45
Las Cruces, NM Metro0.1890.7910.7490.0430.44
Sioux Falls, SD Metro0.1180.8880.630.1140.44
Charlottesville, VA Metro0.1230.890.6020.1160.43
Appleton, WI Metro0.0990.7370.6210.2670.43
Ocala, FL Metro0.464010.2540.43
Cedar Rapids, IA Metro0.1330.7660.6560.1560.43
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN Metro0.0840.7480.6740.2010.43
Topeka, KS Metro0.140.7290.7720.0640.43
Amarillo, TX Metro0.2010.6810.7510.0660.42
Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC Metro0.1590.5690.7020.2010.41
Champaign-Urbana, IL Metro0.0690.7070.7130.1420.41
Bakersfield, CA Metro0.7640.4350.2830.120.40
Fort Collins, CO Metro0.1730.7520.5230.1540.40
Tuscaloosa, AL Metro0.1910.5360.7880.0840.40
Burlington-South Burlington, VT Metro0.0760.8290.5160.1740.40
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, CA Metro0.1690.7240.6160.0850.40
Rochester, MN Metro0.0650.8350.5950.090.40
Chico, CA Metro0.1670.7670.4910.1580.40
Fargo, ND-MN Metro0.0590.8640.5680.0910.40
Laredo, TX Metro0.270.8290.3860.0810.39
Houma-Thibodaux, LA Metro0.1940.4150.8580.0760.39
Bellingham, WA Metro0.1080.6140.6840.1140.38
St. Cloud, MN Metro0.0570.7620.5640.1240.38
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL Metro0.2170.5930.5360.1580.38
Jacksonville, NC Metro0.0840.4340.6790.3010.37
Clarksville, TN-KY Metro0.2080.5140.5760.1980.37
Bloomington, IL Metro00.7590.5950.130.37
Salinas, CA Metro0.3420.6330.3550.1450.37
Yakima, WA Metro0.2320.6630.5350.0450.37
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL Metro0.1620.3990.7230.1550.36
Ogden-Clearfield, UT Metro0.3740.5370.4390.0750.36
Visalia-Porterville, CA Metro0.4520.3870.4190.1010.34
Kennewick-Richland, WA Metro0.1930.5870.3440.1060.31
Provo-Orem, UT Metro0.2910.76500.1320.30
Merced, CA Metro0.2480.3620.3180.160.27
Greeley, CO Metro0.2010.3570.2340.0780.22